Microbes play an important role in our life, so it is very important to understand and study microbes. Microbial genomics can help us understand microbes very well. Today, let us learn it together. The beginning of microbial genomics The human genome project (HGP), launched in 1990, is a great scientific project in the history of […]
Microbes play an important role in our life, so it is very important to understand and study microbes. Microbial genomics can help us understand microbes very well. Today, let us learn it together.
The beginning of microbial genomics
The human genome project (HGP), launched in 1990, is a great scientific project in the history of human science. Its main objective is to determine the entire sequence of the human genome (HG), and to elucidate the location, structure, function, expression and regulation of the gene, as well as the mode of regulation and control. The pathogenesis of major diseases. It is a difficult task to complete the HG, especially the functional HGP in 15 years, with the technical level of the time to complete the HG, especially the functional genome project.
At the same time, the modern biological genome project has been launched to explore new technology and new methods for DNA sequencing and to determine the expression pattern of the function of the base. In 1995, the whole genome sequencing (WGS) and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae were successfully completed by the method of complete genome random sequencing, which opened a new historical page for the study of microbial genome (MG). Since then, many microbial sequences have been determined, including pathogenic microorganisms, important industrial microbes, and microbes living under special conditions.
The contents of microbial genomics
Because the MG is relatively small, some of the genetic background is clearer, so the genome of the microorganism is the most and the data of the MG is increasing rapidly. Faced with such huge biological resources, people have launched research on microbial genomics. We mainly understand it from the following four points.
①Research on pattern microorganism
While carrying out the HGP, the model biological genome project is also initiated. The purpose is to use the homology of the encoding sequence and tissue structure between the model biological genome and the HG, and to clarify the structure, function and species of the higher organisms, especially human genes, in a single or simple biological model. The internal relationship of evolution has been studied deeply by experimental methods after the sequencing of model organisms.
②Minimal genome research
With the completion of the WGS of many organisms, the study of the smallest genome has emerged, that is, how many genes are needed at least for an organism that can live independently. At present, the means of studying the smallest genome are mainly inserting gene mutation and homologous recombination to delete gene analysis. The study of the smallest genome is still following. In addition, its attraction is that it is possible for people to construct a life body composed of the least genes through genetic engineering, which will help to reveal the origin of life, the evolution of biology and the regulation of biological metabolism, and make the human being the master of life.
③Research on bioinformatics
Bioinformatics is a new subject of life phenomenon by processing and analyzing the biological data of exponential growth by using the viewpoints, theories and methods of mathematical and information science. It mainly consists of database, computer network and application software. The main research content of bioinformatics on microbial genome is the biological function of all coding products of the high flux annotated microorganism genome, including the identification of the genome sequence, the function of all the predicted genes, and the construction of the networks that regulate each other in the raw objects by combining biological experiments.
Comparative genomics is also rising with the increase of MG data. The original aim of comparative genomics is to illustrate the inherent relationship between the structure, function and species evolution of higher organisms, especially human genes, through comparison of the model organisms and the HG. At present, the number of MG is the largest, so the comparison of the genome level between microbes has attracted much attention. By comparison of the genome, it is found that many of the virulence genes of the pathogenic microbes are in a unique fragment of DNA, which is called “pathogenicity island”. By genome comparison, the concept of “genomic island” is proposed, which refers to the DNA fragments specific to the genome, such as the secretory Isle, associated with the antibiotic resistance, when the whole genome sequence is compared between two or more close relatives. “Resistant island” and “metabolic island” related to physiological metabolism.
The future of microbial genomics
Looking at the development and current situation of MG research over the past decade, we can see the following trends in microbial genomics.
①Technically, sequencing strategy and technology are from “diversity” to “convergence”, which is conducive to MG sequencing scale.
②The aims from “composition” to “function”. Due to the restriction of sequencing technology and instrument, the study of early MG has spent a long time on the WGS. Because of the constraints of software and computer algorithms, the annotation is relatively simple, and it is basically in the search and location of the components of the whole genome. On the other hand, the research on function is relatively small. In recent years, as more and more MG is measured, how to use these data has become the main content of microbial genome research, that is, the focus of MG research begins to change from “structural genomics to” functional genomics.
③The content is changed from “static” to “dynamic”. Early MG research is limited to genetic search and simply linking genes to certain functions, and future studies tend to put genes into interacting networks.
④From the perspective of “partial” to “entirety”. With the accumulation of MG data, we can understand microbes from the perspective of the whole genome, and we can use comparative genomics methods.